## Is It Possible to Convert Energy into Matter?

According to Albert Einstein, one of the famous scientists who derived
the equation for mass-energy conversion said that, it is possible to
convert Matter into Energy. We know that nuclear power generation is
concerned with the conversion of mass or matter into energy. A very
large amount of energy can be liberated from the matter according to
Einstein's Energy equation.

E=mc2

Where m is the mass and c is the speed of light in vacuum.

This equation is known to everyone who studied physics. But some
months ago when I was checking the statistics of the traffic to my
website I found a search query that made my mind unstable (Search
Suddenly I called my Physics teacher (Mr. Jobish John) to ask about
the Energy-Mass Conversion. He guide me through the correct way to
understand the energy-mass conversion. (Thank you sir!)

Is it possible to convert Energy to Mass?

We know that, according to Einstein's equation (E=mc2) it is possible
to convert mass into energy. But it still tells us that it takes a
huge amount of energy to generate matter in this way.

Particle accelerators can do this. Particle accelerators are able to
convert energy to subatomic particles.

For example by colliding electrons(-e) and positrons(+e), some of the
kinetic energy in the collision goes in to creating new particles. But
these newly generated particles can't combine to form atoms, molecules
and bigger (less microscopic) structures that we associate with matter
in our daily life. This is why, when you convert energy into matter,
it may contain both matter and antimatter. ie, you can only create
matter-anti-matter pairs out of energy.

You may have heard that anti-matter has a tendency to combine with
matter and turn itself back into energy. That's the reason behind the
non-existence of individual matter or anti-matter particles in
particle accelerators.

Production of matter and anti-matter pair is known as pair production.
Pair production provides a conceptual framework for how our internal
world gets translated into the physical reality we experience. The
phenomenon of pair production can be viewed in two different ways.

One way is as a particle and antiparticle and the other is as a
particle and a hole.

The equation gives basic idea about the pair production.

γ --> (+e)+(-e)

Gama radiation is converted to electron and positron in nuclear
fission reactions. They are unstable, because positron is the
anti-particle of electron.

If a particle accelerator could produce matter and anti-matter pair
from energy its existence cannot continue even for a fraction of
second. When the anti-matter meet the matter they will combine
together and form energy.

In a fiction story I have read that each and every matter (including
soil,wood,body,cloths etc) have its own antimatter in the world. They
are separated by a mysterious force. At the end of the world weakening
of this force will lead to conversion of the whole matter to energy.
The end of World.

Do you agree with this fiction story?

## Can We Generate Electric Power From Lightning, An Alternative Energy Source?

There are many people who still believe that it's possible to harvest
power from lightning. Hundreds of lightning bolts are striking on the
earth in each second at different places all around the globe. Have
you ever wondered about this natural phenomena? We know, lightningcarries a large quantity of energy which is able to break air
resistance. According to Scientists, each lightning bolt that stricks
the earth carries energy equivalent to power a 60 watt bulb for 6
months.

"Many uneducated people still believes that lightning is the sword of the God."

Here we are going to explain how lighting works, causes of lightning, applications of lightning etc.

External notes:

1. Irrational Fear of lightning and thunder is known as astraphobia

### Causes of Lighting

1. Cumulonimbus clouds- It is a towering vertical cloud that is very
tall,dense and involved in thunderstorms and other inclement weather. They are able to create lightning and also other dangerous weather.

2. Volcanic eruptions

3. Dust storms

4. Forest fires

Any of the above listed situation may leads to the formation of static
charge on the cloud . The ice inside a cloud is thought to be a key
element in lightning development. It creates a separation of positive
and negative charges within the cloud.

### How It Works?

The basic principle behind the lightning is a simple process called
water cycle. When sea water absorb heat from sun, it vaporizes and
reaches the sky. As the water vapor loses its heat, it turns in to
liquid and fall back to the earth. Thus a water cycle complectes.

In an electrical storm, the storm clouds are charged like giant
capacitors in the sky . The upper portion of the cloud is positive and
lower portion is negative. But it is not yet confirmed how these
charge separation occurs.

There are two plausible explanations.

1. Clouds are the key element in water cycle. These clouds may contain
millions of water droplets and ice suspended in the air. As the
process of evaporation and condensation continues, these droplets
collide with other moisture that is in the process of condensing as it
rises. Also the rising moisture may collide with ice or sheet that is
in the process of falling to the earth or located in the lower portion
of the cloud. The importance of these collisions is that electrons are
knocked off the rising moisture, thus creating a charge separation.
Due to this charge separation there will be a electric field
associated with it. This causes the earth surface to acquire a strong
positive charge. This process is similar as in a Vande Graff
Generator. The potential difference due to the positive and negative
charge separation is sufficient to make a flow of current through the
air.

2. Second explanation:The separation of electric charge is caused when
cosmic particles crashing in to the particles in the atmosphere,
electrons from these particles will knocked free. The ionic particles
formed then separated to the top and bottom of the cloud.

Due to the charge separaton there developes a potential difference,
equal to the break down voltage of air. Thus discharge occurs. From
this discharge of atmospheric electricity the leader of a lightning
bolt can travell at speeds of 220,000 km/h and can reach temperatures
approaching 30,000 degree celsius.

### APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTNING

1. Natural chemistry- When lightning occurs, nitrogen dioxide are
formed in the atmosphere. It is then combined with water and get
converted to nitric acid and reaches the earth. This compound is very
beneficial for plant life. Lightning is also responsible for climate
changes.

2. Harvesting lightning energy- Can you imagine a power house that
harvests the lightning energy? Building such a device and making it
practical would not be easy. It would have to harness the electricity
from lightning and quickly step it down to a manageable voltage and
apply it right away, storing a good deal of it. Storing facility is
the main problem for almost all power houses.

One of the known device which convert lightning energy is Benjamin Franklin's Lightning detector which can inform us that lightning is coming .

There are thousands of researchers from different universities and
organization trying to discover new efficient method to harvest energy from lightning. Science world expect that Lightning could satisfy our growing energy needs. They hope that lightning can perform as a single reliable renewable energy source. It may be possible to harness lightning energy if we could build a giant capacitor to store the enormous amount of energy within the lightning (when it strikes) and slowly releases when there is a demand.

## Working Principle of Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) Generators

Traditional electric generators (Dynamo) are working on the principle of Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction. A dynamo consists of a moving metal conductor in a strong magnetic field to generate electricity.

There are AC generators and DC generators. AC generators are usually known as alternators. It is possible to convert an alternator to DC dynamo by installing a Commutator (a splitted ring arrangement), which will convert the alternating current to direct current.

Here we are discussing about Magneto hydro dynamic generators.
Magneto Hydro-Dynamic Conversion of energy is a direct conversion of thermal energy and kinetic energy into electrical power. A fuel cell is also a direct converter of energy. Read more about fuel cells.

A M.H.D generator works on the same principle as that of a Dynamo. In other words, process of MHD power generation is an application of Faraday's laws of electro-magnetic induction to fluid conductors. MHD generator lacks moving parts but they operate at high temperatures. MHD was developed because of the hot exhaust gas of an MHD generator can heat the boilers of steam power plant, increasing overall efficiency.

In conventional generators magnetic flux is cut by metallic conductors and e.m.f produced is proportional to rate of cutting of flux. In MHD generator, fluid conductors are used. The fluid may be gas at elevated temperatures or liquid like sodium or potassium.

Making gas a conductor of electricity is a difficult process. It is to
be heated to a very high temperature to dislodge the electrons of gas atoms which are tied up with electrically neutral particles. This
process is called ionization. Atoms as such are electrically neutral.
When they are ionised they become electricaly charged particles and gas becomes a conductor.

Unlike the conventional electrical machine which is essentially an
electromechanical converter, MHD Generator is a heat engine operating on turbine cycle transformig internal energy of gas into electrical
energy.

A plasma of hot gas is passed through a duct of varying rectangular
cross section. One pair of walls (top and bottom) are insulated. They form the poles of the magnet. Magnetic field is set up between them.

Motion of the plasma in the magnetic field induces an emf which is at right angles to the magnetic field as well as to the direction of gas
flow. Electrical energy is extracted from the plasma through the
electrode pair which are externally connected to the load.

### Working Principle of MHD generator- The Lorentz Force Law

The Lorentz force law describes the affect of magnetic field on moving charges. A simple explanation for of the law is given by the following formula.

F=QvB

where F is the force acting on the particle. Q is the charge of the
particle, v is the velocity of the particle, and B is the magnetic
field. The vector F is perpendicular to both v and B according to the
Fleming's right hand rule.

### About the Construction of MHD Generators

When gas flows across a magnetic field and current is induced, force tending to slow down the motion of the gas is experienced. Therefore ducts of MHD generators are made diverging to accommodate the same mass of gas at smaller velocity.

Both the insulators and electrods have to withstand as high as 3000
degree celsius of temperature. They must have good resistance to
thermal shock, abrasion and chemical attack.

Energy is needed to magnetize the electromagnet used in MHD
Generators. To reduce the energy loss due to magnetization
Superconductive materials are used.

The working medium after leaving the generator, still possesses
considerable amount of heat which can be utilised for preheating the gas or for generation of steam.

Inorder to achieve a reasonable ionization and high electrical
conductivity at high temperatures like 2000-3000 degree celsius, the gases are seeded with additives like alkali metals.

### Types of MHD Generators

2. Hall generator
3. Disc generator

A coal plant installed with MHD generator can give up to 60%
efficiency, where a typical coal plant gives 40% only.

## Graphene- A Promise for Efficient Solar Power Harnessing and Energy Storage

Graphene, world's thinnest, strongest and most conductive material
have a good promise for future efficient electronics by replacing the
silicon. Besides, latest innovations point out that graphene have the
properties to build an energy secure future. Graphene is considered as
a mysterious material having variety of applications in daily life,
which could make life simple.

Graphene is a single carbon atom layer of honeycomb crystal lattice
structure. The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite
and the suffix-ene Hanns-Peter Boehm who described single layer carbon
foils in 1962. Graphene is a basic structural element of some carbon
allotropes including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and
fullerenes. Grahene is known as mysterious material because they shows
a wide variety of properties. One of the main property is its
toughness.

Graphene is several times tougher than diamond. Despite its strength,
it's also extremely flexible and can be stretched by 20% without any
damage. The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim
and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester for ground
breaking experiments regarding graphene.

Properties of Graphene

1. Tougher than diamond
2. Stretches like rubber
3. Virtually invisible
4. Electric and heat conductor
5. Flexible than copper
6. Fast electron flow
7. Cooling effect

Applications of Graphene

1. Straintronics
2. Efficient solar cells
3. Electronic components
4. Flexible Electronic newspaper
5. Superdense data storage
6. Energy storage
7. Flexible touch screens
8. Cooling Electronics components

Researchers have discovered that when combine with other elements,
graphene can improve the efficiency of energy harnessing and storage
devices. Two separate research teams led by Researchers from
University of Manchester and the Rice University have showed that
graphene can be used to build energy efficient solar cells and
batteries respectively. You can read more about the news here. If you
want to know even more click on the link provided at the end of the
article sections.

How Graphene and Friends Could Harness The Sun's Energy

Researchers at Manchester University and National University of
Singapore have revealed Graphene and other one atom thick material
friendship could create the next generation solar cells and
optoelectric devices. They combined 2D Crystals of Graphene and some
other single atom thick materials to build multilayered
heterostructures in three dimensional stack. The resulting three
dimensional structure were extremely sensitive and efficient
photovoltaic material. Researchers claim that such materials could
potentially be used as ultrasensitive photo detectors or very
efficient solar cells. Besides, they hope that these new hetero
complex structures with multifunctionalities.

The super photovoltaic property of the heterostructures could lead to
the news "How graphene and friends could harness the Sun's energy "

Graphene-Boron Mix Shows Promise for Lithium-ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are the most popular batteries that power almost
all smartphones, tablets, laptops etc. A new research conducted by
researchers at Rice University showed that, the magical material
graphene could improve the capacity of Li-ion batteries even more.
Graphene is a one atom thick material which offers massive surface
area. Battery manufactures hope to take this advantage of graphene to
store lithium ions. However, the difficult part of using graphene as a
ion storage material is the weak adhering property of li-ions on
graphene. The researchers studies the situation and designed a
carbon/boron compound in which a quarter of the carbon atoms are
replaced by boron. This carbon/boron compound is nearly ideal as a way
to activate graphene's ability to store lithium ions. The new
discovery could pave the road to better and more efficient li-ion

Graphene is going to rule the world! What's your opinion? Spend 50

## Applications and Working of Parabolic Reflectors

Parabolic reflectors have various applications such as power
generation, recieving signals etc. Parabolic concentrators can be used
to collect solar radiation and converted into useful form of energy.
So they are also known as parabolic collectors. This apparatus is an
alternative method to harness solar power. This kind of power
generation is entirely different from photovoltaic conversion of solar
energy. Now a days parabolic concentrators are used to generate
electricity, heating water, solar refrigeration, space telescopes,

How Parabolic Reflector Works?

A parabolic reflector has a focal point. The parabolic reflector will
reflect all the radiation falling on it to its focal point. So as the
area of parabolic collector increases it can harness more solar
made of highly polished aluminium or a silvered glass or a thin film
of aluminised plastic. Instead of a continuous form reflector may be
constructed from a number of long flat strip on a parabolic base. When
the reflector is mounted on a frame, it has to tilt according to the
Sun orientation using chain drive. This can be done either manually or
automatically adjusted systems. Absorber (the collector pipe,
preferably with a selective absorber coating) is placed along focus
axis to collect the reflected solar energy. The main drawback of
parabolic concentrator is, it need to tilt the reflector according the
sun's orientation.

How to Generate Power by Using Parabolic Concentrators?

When the water flows though the heat absorber the temperature of water
rises up to 100 degree celsius. The hot water is stored in an
insulated thermal storage tank. From here it flows through a vapour
generator. A working fluid such as methylchloride flows through a
vapour generator. Heat transfer takes place between hot water and this
organic working fluid which has low boiling point. Consequently, at an
ordinary atmospheric pressure, the working fluid evaporates at about
90 degree celsius. This vapour leaves the generator to work in a prime
mover or turbine. A turbine coupled to an electric generator produces
electric power.

The vapour exhausts into a condenser where it is cooled to liquid form
by some cooling medium. The working fluid, now in liquid form is again
pumped to the generator. The amount of energy that can be extracted
from the solar radiation depends upon the size of the parabolic
reflector.

Factors affecting the Output power

1. Area of reflecting surface
2. Reflection surface
4. Working fluid property
5. Efficiency of storage tank

Solar Refrigeration system Using Parabolic concentrator

Solar refrigeration system is just a combination of both the
Refrigeration and power generation. The compressor of refrigeration
generated from parabolic concentrator is used to power the compressor
of vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

Parabolic Reflector as reciever of electromagnetic radiations

Parabolic reflectors can be used as a reciever of radiations coming
the outer space. Large parabolic reflectors can effectively trap such
recievers,space telescopes etc.

## The Ocean- Second Largest Renewable Energy Source

Ocean constitutes 2/3 of the total surface area of the earth. After
the Sun, ocean is the most significant renewable energy source for
mankind. Technologies have been developing to effectively harness the
enormous amount of ocean energy. I often used to spend my spare time
in a beach without my friends or parents. While looking at the horizon
or counting the waves anyone can forget his pains. As a practical
meditation. The blue ocean can fill your mind with peace. Experts
claim that ocean energy alone will be enough to power the future
world. If you are a good reader, you can realise that the ocean is
capable to power the future world. I have conducted a study on ocean
energy by exploring internet and libraries and acquired some
informations about ocean energy. It is possible to drive the ocean
energy through various methods. Those methods are listed below.

Different Types of Ocean Energy

1. Tidal power
2. Wave power
3. Ocean current power
4. Offshore wind energy
5. Ocean thermal energy

Above list shows various methods that can be adopted to harness ocean
energy. These methods are described in detail in the rest of the
article. Even though ocean is the second largest renewable energy
source, it is impossible to drive energy from ocean if there is no
Sun. Actually Sun is the energy source that power the ocean. If there
is no sun, there is no wind. If there is no wind, there is no wind
power. Without the solar heating it is not possible to harness ocean
thermal energy. But the ultimate truth is that, if there is no sun,
there is on life on earth. Then what's the purpose of such energy?

Tidal power- What is tidal power? How does tidal power works?

http://www.energy-physics.com/2013/01/tidal-power.html
Due to the gravitational attraction of celestial bodies such as sun
and moon, the sea water level may rise or fall. When the sea water
level rises, the excess water can be stored in a reservoir. When the
water level decreases, water from the reservoir can be used to drive a
turbine and generate electricity. Tides are more predictable than
waves. So tidal power is considered as a reliable renewable energy
source.

Wave Power- What is Wave Power? How Does Wave Power Work?

Waves are produced by wind, when it blows across the sea surface.
Energy of the wave is directly proportional to the square of the wave
height. So if the wind is more powerful, the more wave energy. Wave
energy is also affected by water density. A list of wave energy
converters is given below.
* Attenuator
* Point absorber
* Oscillating wave surge converter
* Oscillating water column
* Over topping and terminator device
* Submerged pressuredifferential
* Bulge wave
* Rotating mass

http://www.energy-physics.com/2013/02/Wave-Energy.html

Ocean Current Power- How Ocean Current Power Works?

http://www.energy-physics.com/2013/05/a-dual-system-that-combines-both.html
Do you know it is possible to generate power from continuously moving
natural flow of ocean water (ocean currents)? Various factors such as
Salinity, temperature difference, density of water affects the speed
and direction of ocean currents and the power that can be generated.
By implementing special types of water turbine across the ocean
currents we can generate higher amount of electricity. The main
advantage of ocean current power is that they are consistent and
reliable.

Offshore Wind Energy

http://www.energy-physics.com/2013/01/wind-power.html
Offshore wind is more powerful and consistent than onland wind. So the
power output from offshore wind power farms will be much higher than
onland wind farms. There are two methods of offshore wind power
harnessing. They are fixed bottom wind turbines and floating wind
turbines. The major demerit of offshore wind power is its expensive
maintenance.

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

impacts here http://www.energy-physics.com/2013/04/consequences-of-ocean-thermal-energy.html

The difference in temperatures between the sea surface and deep ocean
can be utilised to generate energy. Due to the maximum solar heating,
regions near to the equator have greater potential for ocean thermal
energy.

So the list is over. If you have any information related to ocean
energy feel free to share with us.

## A Dual System That Combines Both Offshore Wind power and Ocean Current Energy Together

Offshore technology company Mitsui is developing a hybrid wind-current
power generating system, which can harness both offshore wind energy
and energy from ocean currents. The equipment consists of two
turbines, one for wind power and other for ocean currents. This
technology uses vertical axis wind turbine instead of horizontal axis
turbines. However the company claim that this apparatus would cut down
on material waste and it could produce twise as much energy as a
conventional turbine. Experts have already experimented with offshore
wind turbines and ocean current turbines but this is first time any
one who combined both the wind power and ocean current systems
together. The company says, "The system will provide cost effective
power generation while having a very little impact on the
environment."

Offshore Wind Power

Wind power is a renewable energy source. Wind turbines are used to
harness power from wind. There are different designs of wind turbine.

1. Horizontal axis wind turbine
2. Vertical axis wind turbine

Besides, there are several modern wind turbine designs that can
effectively harness wind power. If we are building wind turbines or
farms in the bodies of water such as ocean, such power plants are
known as offshore wind power plants. It is possible to generate
continuous and large amount of power from offshore wind compared to
onland wind turbines. The power output from offshore wind farms shows
relatively less intermittency but are too expensive. There are two
types of offshore wind turbines.

1. Traditional fixed bottom wind turbine technology

2. Floating wind turbines

Ocean Current Energy

Do you know Ocean waters are not constant and silent? Literally the
ocean water is continuously moving, carries a large amount of energy.
Technologies are being developed so that energy can be extracted by
special devices and converted to usable form of power. Why those
waters are continuously moving? What are the factors affecting ocean
currents?

Factors Affecting Ocean Currents

1. Direction and power of wind- Strength and direction of wind blow
have control over ocean currents.

2. Water salinity- difference in water salinity of different regions

3. Temperature of water- Due to solar heating water near equator will
have higher temperatures. This temperature difference causes density
differences.

4. Topography of the ocean floor

5. Earth's rotation - Direction and rotational speed of earth can
affect ocean currents.

There are ocean currents driven by some or all of the above listed
factors around the globe. Continuous movement of ocean currents
carries an enormous amount of energy than wind carries. It is because
of the density of water. Water is 800 times denser than air.

Ocean current power is a latest type of renewable energy source.
That's why there is no working power plant that uses ocean currents as
energy source at present.

Technical challenges or demerits of Ocean current power

1. All parts of the system should build with materials having high
corrosion resistance. Due to the presence salt water rate of corrosion
may be higher than ordinary conditions.

2. There is a chance to form bubbles. So it is necessary to avoid cavitation.

3. Prevention of marine growth build up.

4. Initial and maintenance costs are relatively higher compared with
other renewable energy resources such as solar power, wind farms,
geothermal power plants etc.

Although this technology is not widely used at present. Experts claim
that ocean currents can power the entire world in near future.
Enormous amount of energy from ocean currents can be harnessed and
converted to useful form.

Author's Opinion

This new device or apparatus designed by the offshore technology
company 'Mitsui' may lead to a better ocean current energy harvesting
technology. They have a great potential for future energy generation
due to their predictability and reliability.

the ocean current? Do you agree with those scientists who claim that
ocean currents can power the future world? Express your thoughts.

## Energy From Estuaries- How Osmotic Power Generation Works?

It has been discovered that membranes can be used for desalination
process in the early 1970s. The late US Professor Sidney Loeb
discovered that the similar process can be used to generate power, the
Osmotic power. Osmotic Power is a renewable, environmental friendly
energy source. The main advantage of osmotic power is that, it is
possible to generate power 24/7 regardless weather conditions, if
there is a continuous flow of fresh water to sea water. Other
renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power etc are
dependent on climate conditions. Those energy sources cannot provide
power whole the day, but Osmotic power can.

Working Principle of Osmotic Power

If we place a membrane in between salt water and fresh water, the
natural phenomenon of osmosis will cause the fresh water to be drawn
towards the salt water side. The membrane only allows the fresh water
to flow through and stop the salt water. Due to this fresh water
transport there develops a pressure at the saltwater side. If the
membrane is placed in an estuary (where fresh water meets sea water),
the process of osmosis will create a large pressure difference between
two sides of the membrane. This pressure can be used to drive a
turbine. This is the working principle of osmotic power.

Important Parts of an Osmotic Power Plant

a. Membrane- Semipermeable membrane made up of special type material.

b. Turbine- Similar to hydraullic and steam power plants, osmotic
power plant also need a turbine to convert the pressure energy to
rotational energy.

c. Pumps

d. Pipes

e. Cleaning Unit- Dust particles and dirt adhered to the membranes and
turbine will reduce the Efficiency of the power plant. So a cleaning
unit is must in a osmotic power plant to remove foreign particles from
membranes, pipes, and turbine etc.

Anywhere, where fresh water meets sea water can be best site for
osmotic power. However we have to consider the position of consumers
and grid before building a power plant.

Osmosis is a natural phenomenon where water moves from dilute to a
concentrated solution, across a semi-permeable membrane. The aim of
this natural process is to balance both the concentrations. This
natural transport causes an increase in the pressure at the
concentrated side.

We found that Osmotic power is Renewable, reliable, and available all
around the world. Then, why don't we build a functional power plant
based on osmotic power? The cost of the membrane has been an obstacle.
It has discovered that a new cheap membrane based on electrically
modified polyethylene plastic can be used for commercial use. Also,
there are active researches to discover best suitable material for the
membrane.

World's first osmotic power plant is opened by Statkraft on 24
November 2009, Norway. If you are interested to read more about their
project and up coming events click on below link
http://www.statkraft.com/energy-sources/osmotic-power/qa/

Power yield by existing systems are not high enough to power the grid.
As a solution to this problem researchers have discovered nano tubes
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130228093509.htm

1. Renewable energy source- Osmotic power is a renewable energy
source. We can generate electricity from estuaries untill the death of
the river.

2. Reliable

3. Independent on climate conditions- Unlike Solar power or Wind
power, Osmotic power is not dependent on climate conditions.

4. 24/7 power output- Osmotic power plant can power the grid whole the
day. Because Osmotic power is a nonstop energy source.

5. Can be build everywhere,where fresh water meets sea water.

1. Membranes are expensive

2. Plant structure is complicated

3. A separate Cleaning unit is must for proper functing of the system

4. Technical challenges with osmotic membrane